Sterile Technique and Injection Safety
Hands should be washed with soap and water for 2 minutes using WHO’s 6-step technique. Alternately, alcohol-based waterless antiseptic hand rub can be used. Gloves need not be worn when administering vaccinations, unless the person administering the vaccine has open lesions on hands or is likely to come in contact with potentially infectious body fluids. Needles used for injections must be sterile and preferably disposable. Autodisable (AD) syringes are single use, self-locking syringes designed in such a way that these are rendered unusable after single use. Thus, they prevent immediate/ downstream reuse and their use is being promoted in the national immunization program. A separate needle and syringe should be used for each injection. Changing needles between drawing a vaccine from a vial and injecting it into a recipient is not necessary.
If multidose vials are used, the septum should be swabbed with alcohol prior to each withdrawal and the needle should not be left in the stopper in between uses. Different vaccines should never be mixed in the same syringe unless specifically licensed for such use, and no attempt should be made to transfer between syringes. Prefilling of syringes should not be done because of the potential for administration errors as the majority of vaccines have a similar appearance after being drawn into a syringe. Thus, vaccine doses should not be drawn into a syringe until immediately before administration. To prevent inadvertent needle-stick injury or reuse, needles and syringes should be discarded immediately after use in labeled, puncture-proof containers located in the same room where the vaccine is administered. Needles should not be recapped before being discarded.
Source : IAP guidebook on Immunisation 2018-19 by ACVIP